The Continental Center
The movement of the continents has been shown to be a highly ordered movement, but the question of where the initial center of the movement was located has not been answered. The Continental Drift Theory suggests that the center of the movement is from the southern tip of Africa. The literature seems to indicate that this was acceptable because many scientists believe that this is where Homo sapiens first appeared. 112 The Continental Drift theory indicates that the super continent, Pangaea, started breaking apart and at first formed two continents, Laurasia and Gondwana, but the theory also states that the continents moved from an initial center point at the tip of Africa. This is not necessarily an apparent contradiction in that the movement of Laurasia could have been to the north and all the other movements could have occurred in a northerly direction but at a slower rate. If the arrangement of the continents was as suggested in Chapter 4, then the southern tip of Africa could not be the central point of movement for the continents.
Ezekiel 113 indicated
that in the end times the people of Israel will be returned to
the promised land and they will dwell in the center of the earth.
Did God mean the literal center of the earth or was this just
a figure of speech? This phrase has also been interpreted as "midst,"
"among," and "navel." The Arabs
refer to AL Jafr as the "valley of the source,"
which would be a good description of a "navel."
A Rabbi friend of mine indicated that the Hebrew word meant much
more than just the physical center. It had a very special spiritual
meaning also. It meant the source of life (the navel), but also
the source of the spirit, God's place. The word was taken to mean
the source of spiritual life and all sustaining power. ZION If taken literally, what land
did God promise to Abraham and Jacob that He would consider the
center of the earth?
Promised Land Boundaries
To provide a Scriptural basis for Israel's restoration to the land, one needs to review the covenant that God made with Abraham. Genesis 12:1-3 states:
Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed. (KJV)
God told Abraham to leave his native country and people and to go to a land that He would show him. Abraham was told that if he would do this, God would make a covenant with him. That covenant contained a series of promises; among them was the statement that the land would belong to his descendants forever, but its possession required obedience. The extent of the land was detailed in Genesis 15:18-21:
In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates: The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaim, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and Jebusites. (KJV)
The northern border of the land is given in Ezekiel 47:17:
And the boundary shall extend from the sea to Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, and on the north toward the north is the border of Hamath. This is the north side. (KJV).
The eastern border is given by Ezekiel 47:18:
And the east side, from between Hauran, Damascus, Gilead, and the land of Israel, shall be the Jordan; from the north border to the eastern sea you shall measure. This is the east side. (KJV)
The western side is given by Ezekiel 47:20:
And the west side shall be the great sea, from the south border to a point opposite Lebo-hamath. This is the west side. (KJV)
he southern border is specified in Ezekiel 47:19:
And the south side toward the south shall extend from Tamar as far as the waters of Meribath-kadesh, to the brook of Egypt, and to the Great sea. This is the south side toward the south. (KJV).
Figure 32 shows the land that God promised Abraham. The boundaries are from the River Euphrates (at the top of the figure), to the Hills of Lebanon, to the great sea (the Mediterranean), to the great Egyptian river. The literature contains several articles on the location of the "brook of Egypt" or the "great Egyptian river," however they suggest different locations and reflect the different translations.
Figure 32 Land Of Promise
And the south side, it shall run from Tamar as far as the waters of Meribath-Kadesh, thence along the brook of Egypt to the Great sea. This shall be the South side. Ezekiel 47:19 RSV.
And the south side southward, from Tamar even to the waters of strife in Kadesh, the river to the great sea. And this is the south side southward. Ezekiel 47:19 KJV
On the south side it will run from Tamar as far as the waters of Meribah Kadesh, then along the Wadi of Egypt to the Great Sea. This will be the south boundary. Ezekiel 47:19 NIV.
The locations vary from the Nile to the "wadi of Egypt" in the northern Sinai and there appears to be no compelling reason to accept one theory over the other. Exodus 23:31 does state:
And I will set your bounds from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines. Exodus 23:31 RSV
which would give credence to the location of the "brook of Egypt" being what is now considered the Suez Canal. Also, the Cuneiform tablets, 114 especially those found at Elba state that Assyrian kings went across the desert and fought a battle at the great Egyptian river. Then they proceeded westward to fight another battle at the Nile. This implies that the great Egyptian river is between the Sinai and the Nile. Exodus 23:30-31 states:
I will drive them out before you little by little, until you become fruitful and take possession of the land. And I will fix your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River Euphrates; . . .
From these Scripture references one can determine that the land given to Abraham and his descendants is represented by Figure 32, and it contains all of the land of the Arabian peninsula. The land in Figure 32 does belong to the descendants of Abraham, but what portion of the land belongs to the Israelites? Inside the dotted lines is the land area that many scholars assign as the Jewish land of promise. The land to the east belongs to Abraham's other descendants. We are told in Genesis that Ishmael 115 and Esau 116 and their descendants settled in lands to the east of present day Israel. Earlier Lot, after he and Abraham decided there wasn't enough land for their flocks, had journeyed eastward to the Jordan River valley. So all the land to the east of the dotted line on the map is now occupied by the Arabic descendants of Abraham, but the land inside the dotted line was without question promised to Jacob and his offspring. The Bible says that "He gave them the land of the Canaanites." 117 The Scripture does not indicate that the Sinai were given to any ethnic group as an inheritance or occupied by any other ethnic group, and Christopher Sykes and Daniel C. Snell suggest that portions of the Sinai were part of the land originally held by the Canaanites. 118 Scripture does include it in the land of the Abrahamic covenant and it hasn't been given away as an inheritance; therefore it belongs to the twelve tribes of Israel and their descendants.
Some scholars assign all the land described above as belonging to Israel because Deuteronomy 1:8 states:
Behold, I have set the land before you: go in and possess the land the Lord swore unto your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give unto them and to their seed after them.
We read that God's instructions to Moses were to lead His people to the land promised to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Some take this to mean that Israel gets the entire covenant land described to Abraham. But Deuteronomy 2:4-5, 9 states:
And command thou the people, saying, Ye are to pass through the coast of your brethren the children of Esau, which dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you: take ye good heed unto yourselves therefore: Meddle not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as a foot breadth; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a possession. . . . And the Lord said unto me, Distress not the Moabites, neither contend with them in battle: for I will not give thee of their land for a possession; because I have given Ar unto the children of Lot for a possession. Deuteronomy 2:4-5,9
They were to take this land, but they wouldn't get a single foot of the land that God had given to someone else as an inheritance, according to Deuteronomy 2. None of the land given to Lot, Ishmael, Esau and their descendants belongs to the Israelites. The Israelites might trade with them, but they wouldn't possess any of their land (everything east of the solid line in Figure 32). Ezekiel 47:18 specifies that the Jordan river is the east side of the Israeli land.
And the east side ye shall measure from Jauran, and from Damascus, and from Gilead, and from the land of Israel by Jordan, from the border unto the east sea. Ezekiel 47:18
Figure 33 is a close-up of the land area shown by the dotted lines in the preceding figure which is the land that will be Israel's possession. The borders are consistent with the Scripture except for the northern Israeli border.
Figure 33 Land Promised to Israelites
The figure shows the northern border of
the shaded area as the northern border of present day Israel;
but this is not the northern Biblical border of Israel. Ezekiel
gave us the northern border of the promised land as a line from
a bend in the river Euphrates through a point on the Damascus
- Hamath border north of Damascus and from there to the Mediterranean
Sea. 119 This line is shown in red
in Figure 34. We know the point where the line intersects
the Mediterranean coast from Obadiah 20 which states:
And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath; and the captivity of Jerusalem, which is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the south.
Figure 34 Northern Border of Land of Promise
This line is represented in Figure 33 by the dotted
line to the north of the shaded area and a map of the area is
shown in Figure 34. Zarephath is shown on the coast and
is the terminus of the northern Israeli border on the Mediterranean
In conclusion, what has traditionally been old Palestine and the Sinai Peninsula (i.e., everything inside the dotted line and the Sinai peninsula, Figure 33) is the land promised to the Jews and is the center spoken of by Ezekiel.
Return to Zion
In the beginning God made Adam in His own
image and placed him in the garden of Eden. In the garden of Eden
God walked with man, and it was a place that was sacred to the
Lord. He placed Adam and Eve in the garden. 120
God had chosen this land for His people at the center of the earth.
Later when He called Abraham, 121 He
led him to His mountain, Mount Zion, 122
where he was to sacrifice Isaac. When Moses led the Hebrews out
of Egypt, they were to go to the land that God had promised their
forefathers, but Joshua was the one to take them across the Jordan
River. David placed the Ark of the Covenant on Zion. 123
Jesus went to Zion to pay the price for our sins. 124
Jesus ascended from Zion 125 and He
will return to Zion, 126 and His Saints
will be with Him. When Adam was placed on Zion, he was the first
man on Zion; when Eve was created, they became the first family
on Zion. When Abraham and Lot arrived at Zion, they were the first
clan on Zion. At the Exodus the Hebrews became the first nation
to go to Zion, and when Christ returns with His saints, this will
be the first universal kingdom to come to Zion. It appears that
all through the Scriptures God has brought His people to His mountain
Zion, the center of the earth, Israel.
Restoration of Israel
The land area of the promised land of Israel is quite small and fragile as the land bridge between the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa. The Continental Drift theory indicates that the super continent Pangaea broke into and became Laurasia and Gondwana, but if one studies the maps of the suggested continents, none indicates that there was a connection between these continents. It seems highly unlikely that the continents would move in such a manner that this land bridge would be formed. If one accepts the super continent Gottsland as described in Chapter 4, the land bridge would be maintained because the movement of the continents would be away from this central point and it would remain essentially stationary. It has been chosen by God to be the home of His people and He will establish His government there when He has returned His people to the land. 127
To compare these borders to present day Israeli borders one must consider the immediate past history of Palestine. 128 The Jews were allowed to purchase and possess a moderate portion of the land, which was possible through the Balfour Declaration, issued by the British in 1917, just after World War I. This declaration viewed with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. The dark areas inside the borders of Palestine, Figure 35, are representative of the land areas which belonged to the Jews in 1925.
Figure 35 Jewish Land in 1925
Figure 36 shows the land as it looked in 1948. The dark areas have by this time increased in area, owing to the United Nations Partition Plan enacted in 1947.
Figure 36 Jewish Land in 1948
The Holocaust changed world opinion about the land for Palestine
being a homeland for the Jews. The world had essentially ignored
the Zionist movement and its cry for a homeland in Palestine,
but after the Holocaust of World War II, the world countries were
more sympathetic toward the idea and the plight of the Jews. The
United Nations voted on 29 November 1947 on the partitioning of
Palestine to give the Jews a homeland. The vote was 33 for partition,
12 against (which included the Muslim states) with 10 abstentions.
The partition was to become effective on May 14, 1948. Oddly enough,
after Israel declared her independence in May 1948, the United
Nations voted to censure Israel for this act and the vote was
48 for censure and seven abstentions, which was almost a complete
reversal of the original vote for partition.
Figure 37 Jewish Land in 1956
In 1947 the Balfour Declaration, signed thirty years earlier,
was enforced by the United Nations, and a Jewish state was established
in Palestine. Because there were 200,000 Palestinians in the land
at that time, the United Nation partitioned the land. The Palestinians
occupied the yellow areas of the map, Figure 37, and the
Jews the red areas. The United Nations plan was based on two lines
of reasoning: One, that the Palestinians and the Jews each had
a fair share of the good land for farming; Two, that the land
was to be divided in such a manner that would make war an impossibility.
The supposition was that there would never be a war because neither
side could properly defend its land. They reasoned that neither
side could supply their troops without a fight, and therefore
a war was not feasible. Unfortunately, governmental wisdom fell
short of the mark. Immediately after the U.N. Partition Plan went
into effect, the Jews called their Council into session and promptly
declared their independence. Within an hour, they were at war.
The wisdom of men had lasted almost an hour. As a result of this
first war, Israel drove the Palestinians out of the southern part
of their land. Overall, however, the 1948 war had little effect
in the land actually changing hands. Major caches of Palestinian
arms and ammunition were in the lands held by them in the south.
However, two Israeli terrorist groups became the armed forces
of Israel in those early days. These two groups called Haganah
and the Paramach captured those stockpiles of Palestinians' arms,
thus greatly reducing the Palestinian military threat. At that
time, the leader of the Haganah was Menachem Begin, who later
became Prime Minister of Israel.
Israel was attacked again in 1956 which resulted in Israeli land being expanded in the south and in the area around Haifa as shown in Figure 37. The Arabic nations attacked the Israelis again, but this time all of the Palestinians in the area of southern Israel fled into the Gaza Strip. The Palestinian refugees in this small area experienced a great deal of suffering and misery. The northern Palestinians just south of the Lebanese border fled to Lebanon. As they coalesced into an armed force, they became known as the Palestinian Liberation Organization, PLO.
Figure 38 Jewish Land after the 1967 War
Not until the Six-Day War of 1967, however, did the Jews decisively repossess the land. In this war, Israel captured the west bank of the Jordan, Jerusalem, the Golan Heights to the north and the Sinai Peninsula, Figure 38.
Figure 39 Northern Biblical Border of Israel
In 1973, Israel had to fight another war. During this Yom Kippur War, the Israelis did not capture any additional land from the Arab nations. After almost two thousand years and four major wars since 1948, the Jews have returned to the land of promise. Restitution of the land to the descendants of Jacob is being made to the Nation of Israel. Then in 1977 when Sadat of Egypt began the Peace Initiative, Israel returned the Sinai. The people who now occupy the Sinai are not part of Abraham's covenant, so the total area has not been completely restored. The Northern border is in the process of being restored at this writing. Ezekiel 47 states the northern boundary for Abraham's covenant shall be on a line from the sea to a point on the old Hamath - Damascus border - north of Damascus to the bend in the Euphrates River to the East. Figure 34 shows a map of the area under discussion. The bend in the Euphrates is point E, and the point on the border of the old city empires of Hamath and Damascus is point D on the map. The exact spot is unknown; however, it is in this general area. The line extends to the sea through the town of Zarephath. The choice of this point is due to Obadiah 20 which states: "And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel shall possess that of the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath . . . and the cities of the south." Then the northern boundary of Israel will be a line very similar to that shown in Figure 39. The land in the North should be south of a line that runs from Zarephath to the large lake in the Bekka Valley. The Jordan River is to be the eastern boundary for Israel. When Israel took southern Lebanon in June of 1982, they conquered this territory and more -- even unto Beirut. Prime Minister Begin stated that they wanted a secured 25-mile buffer zone for Israel's northern border. Figure 39 shows this buffer zone. Exactly 25 miles north of the Israeli border on the Mediterranean is the town of Zarephath and exactly 25 miles north of Metula, the most northern Israeli town in the upper Galilee or Bekka Valley, is the lake discussed above. Prime Minister Begin's buffer zone would give Israel its northern biblical border.
Practically every large scale world event of the recent past
has contributed to these results. For example, during or after
World War I, what territory changed hands? Of all the countries
in this global conflict, who took what? Did Germany change hands;
did France? Before this period, Israel had been under the control
of the Turkish government. But after World War I, the Turks left.
Palestine, Israel, returned to the control of a Christian nation,
England. God had used mankind's first world war to implement His
Word as He restored Israel to His promises. The Second World War
and the Holocaust led the countries of the world through the UN
to give the Jews a homeland. The Lord God returned His people
to the Land of Promise.
At the turn of the century the British Empire encompassed the globe. The "sun never set on the British Empire." It controlled one fourth of the world population and one fifth of the land mass of the earth. In 1917 the British government issued the Balfour Declaration suggesting a homeland for the Jews in Palestine. The British had received Palestine as a protectorate from the Turks after World War I. In the early thirties the British government developed a policy of maintaining the ratio of the Palestinian- Arab/Jewish population at a constant value and greatly restricted the immigration of Jews to Palestine. This action was taken to appease the oil rich Arab nations. World War II interrupted Britains' control over Palestine, but the ratio policy was reinstated by the British government when it regained control over Palestine after World War II. From the time that the British imposed restrictions on the Jewish immigration to Palestine the British Empire began to disintegrate until now it consists of just a few islands. "I will bless those that bless them and curse those who curse them." The Lord is keeping His promise to return the Jews to the center of the earth, Zion.
Israel is the spiritual center for the three
monotheistic religions, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Each
religion has holy places on Zion and because of this, Zion and
Jerusalem have become a focal point for modern foreign policy
among the major nations. What happens in Israel effects all the
nations of the earth, according to the Premillennialist view;
the events of the end times will be centered in Israel. 129 The Bible indicates that the events
of the end times will be centered in Israel and when Christ returns,
Israel will be the center of government and Christ will rule from
Center of the Origin of Man
The scientific literature 131
has many suggestions as to where and how man originated. However,
all are dependent on the theory of evolution. Liberman 132 and Jackson developed three models for
the origin of man. All three models indicate that man originated
in the southern tip of Africa. The Out-of-Africa Displacement
Model presents the view that the molecular and biochemical data
suggest a migration of modern Homo sapiens out of
Africa about 200,000 years ago replacing all preexisting populations
in Europe, Asia and the offshore land masses. 133
A second major model, Multi Regional Continuity
Evolution, holds that the fossil evidence suggests modern Homo
sapiens evolved independently of early Homo erectus
or proto-erectus forms in several different geographical
regions emerging in a single widespread event sometime after Homo
erectus migrated out of Africa. 134
The third model, the Afro-European-sapiens Hypotheses,
also suggests that modern Homo sapiens first arose
in Africa and migrated soon thereafter to Europe and later to
Asia. 135 All three models state that
the Homo sapiens ultimately replaced
the indigenous groups, and they did so with some absorption of
local genes into their gene pools. The history of the race concept
illustrates that some small amounts of difficult data have been
built into an enormous edifice of beliefs about the races and
the presumed reality of biological divisions within the species
Homo sapiens. The race concept enjoyed almost complete
support among scientists in the United States up until the late
1930s. 136 The process of conceptional
extinction began in the 1930s, and it has now become politically
correct to ignore all aspects of race in anthropological studies.137 There are four types of reasons for
this rejection of race: empirical, definitional, availability
of alternative concepts, and humanitarian; but in all the studies,
no one suggested the actual origin of the races or of man.
The Bible indicates that all men were descendants from the sons of Noah and some suggest that the wives of the sons were of different races, but this idea is not supported by Scripture. The Scripture does inform us that after several generations all of the people were gathered in the land of Shinar. 138 They were of one language and they decided to raise a tower "whose top may reach unto heaven." The Scriptures also relate that God was displeased and He confused their tongues and scattered them "abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth." The purpose of God's action was to make the people disperse as He had instructed Noah and his sons. The confusion of tongues had a divisive effect on the people. Race is also very divisive among men. One tends to associate with people that have the same attributes as he possesses. Since both science and the Bible indicate that man came from a single source how did the different races originate?
Since the people were in one area, Shinar, and God wanted them to disperse, it may be that He not only confused their tongues but also introduced the races. The skin color changes as one travels from the Mideast toward the east. Skin color is light tan in the Mideast, it becomes brown in India, and it is yellow further east. Also, facial features change. The eyes take on a new appearance. If one travels toward the south-southeast, the brown tone skin is found in Egypt, and the further south-southeast one goes the blacker the skin becomes. The facial feature that changes is the lips, and the hair takes on a distinct texture. As one travels toward the northwest, the brown skin is found in Turkey and Greece. Further northwest the skin becomes white, and the hair tends toward blonde coloring, and the facial feature that changes is the nose.
During these ancient times the clothing worn was similar to the robes worn by the women in Arabia and Iran today. Their bodies are fully covered and only their faces are left uncovered. If the distribution of races was made when the Lord scattered the people, then one could tell where the individual belonged by the color of his skin and the facial features. The American Indian is the exception, but the Scripture states that the land was divided in Genesis 10 and the people were not divided until Genesis 11, so there would be no need for the facial feature of the American Indian to change. Is this where the races originated? The divisiveness of skin color still exists today even though science has shown that there are essentially no biological differences in the races of man. The color of a man's skin is only a pigment in the outer layers of the skin and science has not been able to determine what that pigment is or its cause. 139 But the coloration of the skin of the inhabitants of the land of Shinar at the time following the tower of Babal may be related to a function of the distance from the center of the earth, the land of Shinar, the middle east.
The Alphabet Center
Many cultural items are also centered in Israel. For example,
the languages to the east of Israel contain characters, like Chinese
and Japanese characters; the alphabets to the west are oriented
toward cursive letters, not characters. The Hebrew alphabet contains
both cursive and character elements. East of Israel one reads
from the back of the book to the front and from the right to the
left, but west of Israel one reads from the front of the book
to the back and from left to right.
The River from Eden
The location of the garden of Eden has been the subject of much debate. The scientific literature suggests that man originated near the southern tip of Africa. Several theories have been proposed, but all fall within three major models as discussed above. These models differ in the mechanism for dispersement of the homo-sapiens northward and the relationship between the homo-sapiens and the homo-erectus. The choice of southern Africa as the birthplace of homo-sapiens is based on the discovery of human type fossils. DNA testing of the fossils is indeterminate as to their human classification or origin. The generally accepted area for the origin of man is the "fertile crescent" of the Tigris-Euphrates river valley. The Scripture indicates that after Noah's flood, the ark came to rest in the mountains of Ararat, which are near the head waters of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. It has been suggested that the natural movement of people would be down river to better soils and environment, such as would be available in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates river. This could have resulted in the idea of the fertile crescent being the birth place of mankind. The passage in Ezekiel 28:13-14, which states:
Thou has been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, . . . Thou wast on the Holy Mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee. By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee. By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God. . . . Ezek. 28:13-16.
This passage in Ezekiel could be interpreted as indicating that the Garden of Eden was on Mount Zion and was the place of the origin of man and God has been returning His people to Zion since Adam and Eve, as discussed above.
Genesis 2:10-14 states:
And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; And the fold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.
If one accepts the interpretation of Ezekiel 28:13-14 as establishing that the Garden of Eden was on Mount Zion, and then the river came from Zion and became the head waters of four rivers. The name of the first river is Pison and it encompasses the whole land of Havilah. Figure 40.
Figure 40 The Nations of
Reprinted by Permission, Hammond and Co.
Genesis 10 indicates that the land of Havilah was on the Arabian
peninsula and some maps give the name Havilah to the entire peninsula.
The river Pison would then flow down the Jordan and down the Arabian
gulf. The river Gihon flowed around the whole land of Ethiopia
or Cush. The river Hiddekel is the river known today as the Tigris,
and the fourth river was the river Euphrates. But if the land
wasn't divided until Genesis 10; then, in Genesis 2 the land mass
would be similar to Gottsland. If one collapses the Mediterranean
Sea and the adjacent gulfs, the head waters of the Tigris, the
Euphrates, the Jordan and the Suez canal appear to originate in
about the same area.. These rivers also isolated Israel and the
Sinai near the center of the land mass, Gottsland.
The Flood of Genesis
One of the main arguments that some have used against the idea of a literal world flood is that there is insufficient water to cover the entire land masses of earth. However if there was a single super continent Gottsland at the time of the flood, the amount of water required for full coverage would be greatly reduced. One could have a sea swell such as occurs in a hurricane or in the tides and sufficient water would be available to cover the earth. The tidal effects of the gravitational pull of the moon and sun may have supplied the necessary increase on one side of the earth. Baumgardner 140 suggests that runaway subduction may have been the driving mechanism for Noah's flood. Many different theories have been advanced. Genesis states that the fountains beneath the earth were opened and the rains came and the whole earth was covered. When the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, the waters started receding. Then where did the water go? During the studies on the soil types and coastal soils it was found that alluvial soils have been found in areas where they should not be. Alluvial soils are the kinds of soils that developed in parent material deposited by water. In many parts of the world they are found on the mountain tops, but they are normally found in the bottoms of lakes and rivers. Yet, deposits of alluvial soils are on the mountain tops. In Oklahoma the soils occur in the tops of the Quachita, Arbuckle, and Wichita mountains, some 3000 feet above today's river, lake bottoms, and flood plains. This is shown in Figure 41, which is the geologic province map of the State of Oklahoma. 141
Figure 41 Oklahoma Alluvial
Reprinted by Permission from Petroleum Information Publication Services
The different colored areas represent
different rock or geologic provinces that occur in Oklahoma. Similar
maps for the State of Colorado indicate that alluvial soil deposits
are also found in the Rocky mountains at high elevations. Alluvial
soil deposits are also found in the Black Hills of South Dakota,
on top of Lookout Mountain along the Georgia-Tennessee border,
and along the Georgia Atlantic shoreline. The soils in Georgia-Tennessee
are unique to the area and are made of a combination of soil types
that exist only west of the Mississippi indicating that the soils
are not native to the area but were transported and deposited
to this area. If one draws a line from the alluvial soils at the
highest elevation to the lowest elevation, the line produces a
possible drainage pattern from the Rockies Mountains to the Atlantic
Figure 42 United States Alluvial Soils
Similar drainage patterns can be shown for the Asian and South American continents. 142 Since the flood occurred before the earth was divided in Genesis 10, one should overlay these drainage patterns on the map of Gottsland, as shown in Figure 43.
Figure 43 Flood Drainage Point
The patterns imply that the drainage was toward the Mideast, or possibly even Israel. Is this the center where the water returned under the surface from the flood? 143 This is another possible example for the center of the earth being in or near Israel. NASA satellite data also indicates that there is a vortex type area at Al Jafr, Jordan, just east of the Dead Sea. This is shown in Figure 44, a reproduction of multi-spectral satellite data obtained by NASA on 28 July, 1975.
Figure 44 Jordanian Vortex - Al Jafr
The Figure shows an area of 100 miles
by 100 miles making the actual vortex or drainage area approximately
500 square miles in size. One can actually see the drainage pattern
leading into Al Jafr. The
Dead Sea is reportedly the deepest point of land in a non-ocean
area on earth, 1,299 feet below sea level. 144
However, the area shown in Figure 44, Al Jafr, Jordan,
the depth to bedrock is 200 feet deeper than in the Dead Sea area.
The depth to bedrock increases as one approaches Al Jafr from
the west, however, little information is available for the Jordanian
side. The number of Israeli wells that have logged to bedrock
is small compared to those in Oklahoma which resulted in the Depth
to Granite drawing, see Figure 79. Is this the point of the flood's
waters returning "neath the surface?" Is this
the actual center of Gottsland?
Israel is the center of the crossroads between the three continents, Europe, Asia and Africa. It has been the central trade route pivot since ancient times and this has resulted in it being conquered many times. The Scriptures indicate that in the end times, Israel will be the center of all the activity. God put His people in the center of the earth and from almost any standpoint it is the center, physically, spiritually, culturally and when Christ returns in the Second Advent it will be the center of government, and Christ will rule with a rod of iron. 145
112 Leonard Liberman
and Fatimah Jackson,
"Race and Three Models of Human Origin," American
Anthropologist 97 (1995): 231-42; Gunter Brauer,
"Current Problems and Research on the Origin of Homo Sapiens
in Africa," Humanbiology, Budapestinensis (1982):
113 Ezekiel 38:12; RSV - "in the center of the earth" NASB - "at the center of the world" KJV - "in the midst of the land"; NIV - "the center of the land"; NCV - "at the center of the world"; TLB - "and the whole earth revolved around them." Return
114 M. J. Selman, "Published and Unpublished Fifteenth Century B. C. Cuneiform Documents and Their bearing on the Patriarchal Narratives of the Old Testament." (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wales,1975); Kathleen M. Kenyon, "Archaeological Discoveries in the Holy Land," Archaeological Institute of America (1967); Kenyon, Archaeology in the Holy Land 4th ed, (London: Academic Press, 1979), 91. Return
115 Genesis 25:12-17. [KJV] Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham: And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, Genesis Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah: These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people. Return
116 Genesis 32:3. And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom. Genesis 32:3 [KJV] Return
117 Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (New York: Academic Press, 1983). Return
118 Christopher Sykes, Crossroads to Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965); Daniel C. Snell, Life in the Ancient Near East (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997; Chester G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World. (New York: Oxford Univ., 1991); Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt. (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992), 207, 233.Return
119 Ezekiel 47:13-23. [KJV] Thus saith the Lord GOD; This shall be the border, whereby ye shall inherit the land according to the twelve tribes of Israel: Joseph shall have two portions. And ye shall inherit it, one as well as another: concerning the which I lifted up mine hand to give it unto your fathers: and this land shall fall unto you for inheritance. And this shall be the border of the land toward the north side, from the great sea, the way of Hethlon, as men go to Zedad; Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath; Hazarhatticon, which is by the coast of Hauran. And the border from the sea shall be Hazarenan, the border of Damascus, and the north northward, and the border of Hamath. And this is the north side.And the east side ye shall measure from Hauran, and from Damascus, and from Gilead, and from the land of Israel by Jordan, from the border unto the east sea. And this is the east side.
And the south side southward, from Tamar even to the waters of strife in Kadesh, the river to the great sea. And this is the south side southward. The west side also shall be the great sea from the border, till a man come over against Hamath. This is the west side. Ezekiel 47:20
So shall ye divide this land unto you according to the tribes of Israel. angers that sojourn among you, which shall beget children among you: and they shall be unto you as born in the country among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. and it shall come to pass, that in what tribe the stranger sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance, saith the Lord GOD. Return
120 Based on Ezekiel 28:13-16 , some place the Garden of Eden on Zion. Return
121 Genesis 12:1-8. [KJV] Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him. And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD. Return
122 Genesis 22:2-3 . [KJV] And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him. Return
123 I Chronicles 15:3. And David gathered all Israel together to Jerusalem, to bring up the ark of the LORD unto his place, which he had prepared for it. [KJV] Return
124 Matthew 16:21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day. [KJV]
Mark 11:11. And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve. Mark 11:11 [KJV] Return
125 Acts 1:9 . And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. [KJV] Return
126 Revelation 14:1. And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads. [KJV] Return
127 Ezekiel 36-39 Return
128 Richard H. S. Allen, Imperialism and Nationalism in the Fertile Crescent (London, Academic Press, 1974).Return
129 John F. Walvoord, Major Bible Propohecies (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991), 389-406; John Warwick Montgomery, Where Is History Going (Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers, 1972), 182-203; C. C. Ryrie, Basic Theology (Grand Rapids: Vicotr Books, 1986), 482-487, 464-467; W. A. Criswell, Expository Sermons on Revelation (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1962), 35-53, 78-89. Return
130 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), 504-507; Lehman Strauss, Revelation (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1964), 68, 235-244, 322-331; John F. Walvoord, Major Bible Prophecies, 11-16 Return
131 Gunter Brauer, "Current Problems and Research on the Origin of Homo Sapiens in Africa," Humanbiology, Budapestinensis (1982): 69-78; Jared Diamond, "How Africa Became Black," Discover 15 (February 1994): 72- 81; "Chromosome Maps Prove the Origins of Races," New Scientist 109 (1986): 24; "Foundations of Anthropological Genetics (Special Edition)," Human Biology 61 (1989); Theya Molleson, "The Archaeology and Anthropology of Death: What the Bones Tell Us," Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death (New York: Academic Press, 1981); Pat Shipman, "On the Origin of Races," New Scientist 137 (1993): 34-7; Terence Turner, "Anthropology and Multiculturalism," Cultural Anthropology (November 1993): 411-29; Allen C. Wilson, "Where Did Modern Humans Originate," Scientific American (April 1992): 66; Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin, Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human (New York: Doubleday, 1992); A. J. Kelso, Physical Anthropology (New York: Lippincott, 1974); O. Klineberg, Race Differences (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1935); W. W. Howells, "Homo Erectus- Who, When and Where: A Survey," The Human Evolution Source Book (Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1993); S. L. Washburn, "The Study of Race," The Human Evolution Source Book (Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1993). Return
132 Leonard Liberman and Fatimah Jackson, "Race and Three Models of Human Origin," American Anthropologist 97 (1995): 231- 42.Return
133 Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking and Allan C. Wilson, "Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution," Nature 325 (January 1987): 31-36. Return
134 Milford H. Wolpuff, "Multiregional Evolution of Humans," Scientific American (April 1992): 76; ________. "Multiregional Evolution: The Fossil Alternative to Eden." The Human Evolution Source Book, ed., Russell L. Ciochon (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993), 117. Return
135 Gunter Brauer,"Current Problems and Research on the Origin of Homo Sapiens in Africa," 69-78. Return
136 O. Klineberg, Race Differences. Return
137 Leonard Liberman, "Race and Three Models of Human Origin," 231-42; Alice Littlefield, Leonard Lieberman and Larry T. Reynolds, "Redefining Race: The Potential Demise of a Concept in Physical Anthropology," Current Anthropology 3 (1962): 279-281; Leonard Liberman, Blaine W. Stevenson, and Larry T. Reynolds, "Race and Anthropology: A Core Concept without Consensus," Anthropology and Education Quarterly 20 (1989): 7 - 73. Return
138 Genesis 11:1-4. [KJV] And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. Return
139 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Medical and Health Yearbook, 1989, "Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery," by Robert M. Goldwyn, M.D. Return
140 John R. Baumgardner, "Runaway Subduction as the Driving Mechanism for the Genesis Flood," in the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Creationism in Pittsburgh, PA. July 18-23, 1994 by the Creation Science Fellowship, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA., (1994).
141 Scott M. Ritter, ed., "Biostratigraphy of Arbuckle Mountains of Southern Oklahoma," Oklahoma Geologic Survey Guidebook 27, 1990. Return
142 Dr. Ted Silker, Professor, "Prelimenary Report on Distribution of Alluvian Soils," Forestry Department, Oklahoma State University, submitted to the Oklahoma Foundation for Research and Development, 1978. Dr. Silker has preformed extensive studies in the deposition of alluvian soils and their affect on timber production. The Russian and Brazilian data was reported by the International Forestry Journals and translations and maps were furnished by Silker. Return
143 Genesis 8: 1-3. [KJV] And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark: and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged; The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained; And the waters returned from off the earth continually: and after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. Return
144 Science Desk Reference, 378. Return
145 Revelation 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne. [KJV]
Revelation 19:15. And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. [KJV] Return